Instructor then steps back and tells student to let the cane continue to rest on head. As the instructor steps forward and back, the student will experience the seeming diminution of size as the instructor steps away. To more fully experience this phenomenon a second cane can be attached to the instructors shoe and the cane angle will diminish as the instructor steps away.
Railroad tracks meet in the distance. Needs minimum five people. One person stands midway between two others standing approximately 20 feet apart or the width of a room.
The other two people stand at the far end of the room each in opposite corners, or at the same distance apart as the first two. Instruct the first or closer set of people to hum or sing and ask the student placed midway between them to point to them. Then ask them to stop and have the other set sing. When the student points to them, he will experience his arms moving much closer together.
If you have the space and students more increments of distance could be incorporated into this experiment. Change places so that each student experiences the experiment from the mid point vantage. Student holds a bottle or easily grasped object, 12 to 18 inches tall, with one hand. The other hand is placed midway on the object and then moves up the object to the top and then moves down the object to the bottom experiencing the two ends as separated by degrees. The student then moves his hand away from the object by a couple of feet and then moves the hand to first the top of the bottle returning to this the same place and then moving their hand to the bottom of the bottle.
He will easily see that their hand is making a much smaller angle from this vantage point. Outline experiments. What is outlining? In two-dimensional art, outlines are important to describing objects, but what is an outline?
This experiment can and should be done on different scales, large scale can be with a cane held in a straight arm pivoting at the shoulder as in the first experiment. Have one student trace around another student by moving the cane gently around the outside contours. Have the students describe the positions of the other using only this information.
When students use this on a small scale such as moving their finger around an object, they need to understand that they need to establish and stick to one vantage point for the entire object.
OR what happens when you do change vantage points? Visually impaired children should also learn the rules of social courtesy e. These skills include feeding, dressing, toileting, personal hygiene, cleaning and cooking. These have to be taught right from the lowest class gradually up to senior classes. He should help them to develop such qualities as self-image, self-esteem, self-confidence, self-awareness, self-discipline, independence, a good personality, a positive learning attitude, good interpersonal relationship, social awareness, etc.
The teacher may also work in collaboration with other staff and professionals for effective management of the children's behaviour problems. Career counselling and guidance for school leavers or overage slow learners are necessary to prepare them for vocational training, thus improving their job opportunities, and to help them integrate into society. Therefore, tactile training and pre-braille training are very important to visually impaired children.
In order to acquire sensory acuity and efficiency, tactile training, manipulative play and art and craft activities are emphasized.
When they are ready to learn braille numbers, the English alphabet and Chinese braille initial particles, Braille Boards are used for practice. In learning the tone marks of Chinese characters, young children are taught to learn by chanting them to acquire competence. Another important aspect in training the 'reading fingers' is the skills of scanning and locating text, ranging from the orientation of lines to paragraphs and pages.
However, when they are in the form of photos, they are too complicated to be represented in line graphics and thus brief descriptions have to be incorporated. Orientation and Mobility Training 1 Attention to Pupil's General Health Conditions Before designing individual orientation and mobility training programmes for visually impaired children, special attention should be paid to their general health conditions, the presence of other physical or sensory impairments and their individual learning difficulties.
In order to enhance the children's body image and spatial concept, and to facilitate the integration of sensory and self-protective skills, the elements which address equilibrium, co-ordination, flexibility and agility should be incorporated.
Emphasis should be placed on the development of awareness and effective utilization of the children's remaining senses such as auditory, tactile, olfactory, kinaesthetic and particularly non-visual cognition. Motivation and positive reinforcement are of paramount importance during this stage of training.
Emphasis should be put on acquiring skills for non-visual orientation and navigation in a less controlled environment. Training should be conducted outdoors to enhance awareness and utilization of environmental clues and landmarks.
This is an appropriate period to develop basic cane skills and to consolidate concepts of sidewalks, blocks, streets and intersections. It is also advisable to take different weather conditions into consideration. The following activities will enable the children to use the different means of public transport while travelling independently, so that they can integrate into society: 1 implications of traffic rules and regulations; 2 auditory analysis of traffic patterns; 3 development of advanced cane skills; 4 selection of appropriate means of transport; 5 use of good judgment under changing conditions; 6 transfer of acquired skills to new situations; 7 appropriate interactions with the public.
Optacon training takes about 50 hours and is divided into 3 stages: the preliminary stage, the basic training stage and the follow-up stage. Different types of words and formats in the book are also introduced. The use of the Optacon allows the children to read directly from the typewriter. The Cathode Ray Tube lens also enables the children to read the computer screen with the Optacon. The machine enables the children to expose themselves to learning media other than braille.
The teacher should familiarise the children with the English pronunciation produced by the machine, and help them to understand the different functions and the orientation of the keys, to control the machine in reading text and to overcome the difficulties caused by the malfunction of the machine. VersaBraille training also emphasizes its communicating function with sighted people. It can help the children to study and do their homework. The teacher should familiarise the children with the orientation of the keys on the control panel by guiding their hands to indicate the actual positions and to distinguish between the 'left' and 'right' movements as well.
For example, in teaching Mathematics, mathematical charts and graphs have to be enlarged or enhanced. In Music, the children should be taught to read music with enlarged notes drawn on the Wyteboard. Pictures or diagrams used in various subjects can be enlarged by projecting them on the wall or screen with slides or transparencies. Moderate low vision children generally have difficulties in reading and writing print.
The use of flash cards in enlarged print can help to promote their visual memory in recognizing Chinese characters and English words in language lessons. These children should be given lots of exercises to familiarize themselves with the order of the strokes of complicated Chinese characters. Similarly, sufficient exercises on the different strokes and curves of English letters are also required. In addition, adequate drills to acquire proficiency in English cursive writing are also important to improve the children's speed of writing.
In watching ETV programmes, the use of distant optical aids can help the children achieve better viewing effect. In learning sewing manually in Home Economics, threading tools are needed to assist the children in threading needles. Sewing magnifiers are also required for sewing. To give the children access to the computer, the teacher should train them to use screen enlargement devices or software so that they can see the visual displays on the screen.
Although some children have very limited visual ability, they can use their residual vision so effectively that their functioning appears to be visually oriented.
Others having similar visual potential may not be as responsive to visual stimuli. They may behave as if they were unable to see at all. A visual functioning assessment is therefore necessary to determine the present visual functioning level of each child so that individual vision training programmes with suitable visual stimulating materials can be developed to help the children use their limited vision to the full. These activities should be made interesting and motivating and the amount of visual information provided for the children should not be excessive.
Form[ edit ] Silver wedding bands with names Henri que and Tita written in braille Braille was the first writing system with binary encoding. Within an individual cell, the dot positions are arranged in two columns of three positions.
A raised dot can appear in any of the six positions, producing sixty-four 26 possible patterns, including one in which there are no raised dots.
For reference purposes, a pattern is commonly described by listing the positions where dots are raised, the positions being universally numbered, from top to bottom, as 1 to 3 on the left and 4 to 6 on the right. The lines of horizontal Braille text are separated by a space, much like visible printed text, so that the dots of one line can be differentiated from the braille text above and below.
Different assignments of braille codes or code pages are used to map the character sets of different printed scripts to the six-bit cells. Braille assignments have also been created for mathematical and musical notation. However, because the six-dot braille cell allows only 64 26 patterns, including space, the characters of a braille script commonly have multiple values, depending on their context. Test Administration: Meeting attendees provided the following information: Teachers want explicit guidelines as to how much or little assistance they can provide a student during the test.
Teachers want a list of necessary materials prior to the day of the test. Teachers want practice materials available for sighted students to also be available in braille. Teachers want clarification on how much time a student can spend on a test. Teachers want a toll-free help line for questions or problems on test day i. Teachers want specific instruction as to what is allowable in the transcription of the writing response from braille to print.
Test items require multiple scanning tasks, i. Spatial concepts such as 3-D concepts and textures that are not appropriate to braille. Participation of VI teachers during the item development process. Test Reporting Meeting attendees offered the following concerns: Availability of raw data for braille test results. Provide a toll-free number in the instructions.
This is particularly effective in learning complex Chinese characters. However, some areas in the curriculum may have to be modified to strengthen practical skills in the use of the computer and special adaptive devices with emphasis on the following areas: 1 Training in keyboard skills with manual typewriters before computer operation Typing is introduced here as a means to master basic keyboard skills with certain degree of accuracy rather than speed. Learning materials which provide the children with opportunities to touch and count are necessary to help them acquire mathematical concepts. Following are some suggestions geared to the needs of the pupil: 1 Suitable Adaptation To Map To teach these subjects, learning materials have to be prepared in braille copies and embossed braille maps or pictures should be used. He should help them to develop such qualities as self-image, self-esteem, self-confidence, self-awareness, self-discipline, independence, a good personality, a positive learning attitude, good interpersonal relationship, social awareness, etc.
By using various learning activities, such as phonetic games, passage reading, sentence making, dialogue practice, report writing, discussions and audio recording, the children's interest can be stimulated. Learning activities used in Mathematics lessons should be closely related to the children's daily life experiences. Experiment beforehand to develop your own recipe for consistency. Then each piece was drilled, pinned, and glued to a base.
Assessment or Reflection: At the last session have students fill out assessment forms asking for short answers on what worked and what could have been done better. VersaBraille training also emphasizes its communicating function with sighted people. Various language activities such as story-telling, singing, role-play, etc.
He should help them to develop such qualities as self-image, self-esteem, self-confidence, self-awareness, self-discipline, independence, a good personality, a positive learning attitude, good interpersonal relationship, social awareness, etc. That is, character mapping between print and braille is not one-to-one. However, because the six-dot braille cell allows only 64 26 patterns, including space, the characters of a braille script commonly have multiple values, depending on their context.
Eight-dot braille has the advantages that the case of an individual letter is directly coded in the cell containing the letter and that all the printable ASCII characters can be represented in a single cell. They may behave as if they were unable to see at all. A big and small horse low in the picture frame would describe a large and small horse or mother and foal. In learning needlework, fashions and design, visually impaired children can do simple stitching and simple household sewing.
As the children show some progress, other colours can be added discriminatingly and more complex pictures or drawings can be used. Use the graph below to answer question 13 on the next page. Six Techniques for Experiencing Perspective Developed in conjunction with John Kennedy — see Drawing and the Blind, by John Kennedy; Yale University Press, , for more ideas Student sits on a chair and holds arm and cane in straight line, allowing arm to pivot only at shoulder. The teacher may also work in collaboration with other staff and professionals for effective management of the children's behaviour problems.
Life, Paint, and Passion. Once the other experiments have been done, the student can place the objects on the landscape and describe what the different sizes would mean in different positions.
Plan 3: Fantasy Island Overview: Students brainstorm on and then create an island in several mediums and then explore the world they have created. Other basic principles of orientation and mobility training are the same as those for totally blind and severe low vision children as described in Section 3. A raised dot can appear in any of the six positions, producing sixty-four 26 possible patterns, including one in which there are no raised dots. With the cane outlining exercise you can also experience overlapping of objects by placing them in such a way that one outline interrupts the other outline. However, some adaptations to the learning materials and the teaching approaches have to be made so that the learning needs of visually impaired children can be met.
In print reading passages, words were underlined and the students asked, for example, "the underlined word in the passage means Following are some suggestions geared to the needs of the pupil: 1 Art Appreciation The teacher should help the children to touch and describe the art work and discuss with them the aspect of art appreciation. The use of flash cards in enlarged print can help to promote their visual memory in recognizing Chinese characters and English words in language lessons. Consideration should be given to the effects of illumination and weather conditions as well. In English Braille, the rest of that decade is rounded out with the ligatures and, for, of, the, and with.