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Effective writing and publishing scientific papers part view

  • 01.04.2019
Effective writing and publishing scientific papers part view

Step 2: Prepare the Manuscript Several strategies have been proposed for writing scientific manuscripts. The easiest section of a manuscript to write typically is the Methods section.

After all, the author knows how the study was designed from the very beginning and can easily draft a Methods section with appropriate subheadings. The subheadings in the Results section often can directly mirror the subheadings in the Methods section e.

The Introduction section often is written last. Use of modern reference management software allows easy insertion of references as you write and allows references to be moved easily to various sections as needed and renumbered automatically. An alternative writing strategy, used by many experienced scientific writers, is first to create a draft layout of the figures and tables in the desired order and then to write the figure legends.

The optimal sequence for presentation of data and figures is not necessarily the order in which experiments were performed. Rather, the sequence that provides for the clearest presentation should be used. After creation of the figures, the text of the Results section is written so that it is supplemented by the figures and tables e.

The other sections are written next, with drafting of the abstract postponed until drafts of the other sections are complete. Each author should be familiarize him- or herself with the scientific writing for a variety of study designs e. Avoid jargon and abbreviations Abstract The abstract is the part that will be read first and most widely. Follow the journal format and word length for the abstract typically about words , and be sure to include the key data and conclusions Key words 6—8 Key words help readers find your paper and support its listing to be at the top in search results.

Avoid overlapping key words as well as key words that are only one word Introduction The Introduction section should include 2 to 3 paragraphs about the background summarizing existing evidence and knowledge gaps, purpose of the study, and hypothesis if the study was hypothesis driven to convince readers that the study is significant and important Methods Provide enough details or citations if similar methods were reported in previous studies so that others can judge the reliability of the study and reproduce your research.

Clearly document the study design, study subjects, time period, metrics and outcomes, and statistical methods Results Present the data and results germane to the hypothesis or the theme of the manuscript. Appropriate use of tables and figures is critical. You may describe your objective interpretation of the data in the Results section rather than simply listing observations Discussion Summarize the study and explain both the significance of the findings and how they fit in with previously published work.

In the first paragraph, briefly summarize the study results, their significance, and the originality of the findings. In the third paragraph, discuss specific findings of your choice e.

In the fourth paragraph, describe the limitations of the study. In the final paragraph, briefly summarize the global conclusions, carefully avoiding overstatement of the study results. Although it is challenging, avoid excessive repetition of results between the Results section, Figures, and Discussion section References List the publications cited in the manuscript.

Use of citation software such as Endnote to insert and format the references is strongly recommended Figure legends Write the legends such that they are brief and make the figures fully understandable without reference to the text of the manuscript Liberal use of subheadings, especially in the Methods and Results sections, is often useful to the reader.

Avoid placing contents in the wrong sections, which can confuse the reviewers. For example, do not describe partial results in the Methods section, and avoid speculation regarding data in the Results section.

Such fundamental flaws are quickly detected by reviewers and often result in a request for revision or rejection of the manuscript. With this basic structure in mind, begin by outlining the manuscript. The very first primitive draft would be a list of important key points you want to describe under each section and subheading. First, make sure your thoughts are expressed.

Then determine whether you have expressed them in the correct section and in a logical sequence. This procedure will provide you with a rough draft of the manuscript, maintain your focus on important points, and avoid sloppy and lengthy manuscripts. Draft the Manuscript Once the primitive outline is complete, develop a single, coherent manuscript that logically explains your study.

It is important to focus around a hypothesis and to ensure that the entire Results section, the Discussion section, and the title consistently address the stated hypothesis. The conclusion of the manuscript should directly align with the data presented in the Results section, and overstatement must be avoided.

For academic surgeons, it is very important to be a student of fluent writing in English. Scientific writing requires specialized writing skills that are not well emphasized in medical education in general or research training in particular. Particularly for authors who are not native English speakers, having the manuscript reviewed by a scientific editor before manuscript submission often is of substantial benefit. Well-written English will surely give the reviewer a more favorable impression of the manuscript.

Brevity without sacrifice of logic and clarity is a cardinal rule in scientific publishing. Effective tables and figures are of paramount importance to the presentation of findings 14 and also are extremely helpful in making the manuscript concise.

In addition, electronic files, especially videos, often are useful and favored tools that strengthen the manuscript. In drafting the manuscript, pay utmost attention to avoid plagiarism including self-plagiarism , fraud, and fabrication. All authors of a manuscript are responsible for any such infractions that are committed.

The more iterations of the manuscript you have, with critical input from co-authors, the better. This review intends to guide surgeons through the process of publication.

The rational for publishing is explained and practical advice on choosing the appropriate types of article for a message, selecting destination journal and maximising the visibility of published articles is given. This discussion is relevant to a pan-subspecialty audience.

Surgical research or comic opera: questions, but few answers. Lancet ; : However, since the paradigm shift towards strictly evidence-based practice, efforts have been made to improve the quality of surgical research. There are several approaches to ensuring the continued improvement of the quality of surgical research. One involves training residents not just in the conduct of high quality research, but also in communicating their findings through publication.

However, research participation without measurable output may rouse suspicions. The publication of the results of research is ideal as the process of peer-review is intended to validate the scientific rigour of the presented work. Publication may also provide evidence of intellectual ownership of an idea.

This may be important should the surgeon wish to seek funding from external agencies for future research projects. Therefore, surgeons with high rates of high quality publications are more likely to be employed by prestigious institutions, which in turn are more likely to gain research funding. Although the advancement of surgical practice is the ultimate goal of publishing, not all publications achieve this. From a more pragmatic viewpoint, trainees intending to enter into highly competitive higher surgical training posts require publications as evidence of academic pursuit and achievement, among other achievements.

So you want to become a plastic surgeon? What you need to do and know to get into a plastic surgery residency. Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2 : In the UK, plastic surgery is one the most competitive specialties. The UK plastic surgery trainee. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 64 12 : Plastic surgery senior house officers in the UK and Ireland: academic background, publication rates and research plans.

Br J Plast Surg ; 57 2 : Given these impressive records, applicants to such competitive programmes will require a strong publication record in order to be competitive. Commencing the accrual of a publication record as medical students may be of advantage due to the reduction in time between graduation and selection for higher training [ 5 Mabvuure N.

RE: Jalali et al. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 65 4 : e Publication practices of medical students at British medical schools: experience, attitudes and barriers to publish. Med Teach ; 33 1 : e A follow-up study found that students interested in plastic surgery had published more than their counterparts due to an awareness of future competitive pressures [ 7 Mabvuure NT, Griffin MF, Hindocha S. The race to residency: publication practices of medical students interested in plastic surgery.

Int J Surg ; 12 4 : Macknin et al. Does research participation make a difference in residency training? Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 1 : Furthermore, Namdari et al. What is the relationship between number of publications during orthopaedic residency and selection of an academic career? J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 95 7 : e Indeed, non-altruistic motivations for publishing are not unique to surgery and have been described in other specialties [ 10 Thompson PJ.

How to choose the right journal for your manuscript. Chest ; 3 : Therefore, plan ahead for the total number of tables and figures needed to make your key points. Step 2: Prepare the Manuscript Several strategies have been proposed for writing scientific manuscripts. The easiest section of a manuscript to write typically is the Methods section. After all, the author knows how the study was designed from the very beginning and can easily draft a Methods section with appropriate subheadings.

The subheadings in the Results section often can directly mirror the subheadings in the Methods section e. The Introduction section often is written last. Use of modern reference management software allows easy insertion of references as you write and allows references to be moved easily to various sections as needed and renumbered automatically. An alternative writing strategy, used by many experienced scientific writers, is first to create a draft layout of the figures and tables in the desired order and then to write the figure legends.

The optimal sequence for presentation of data and figures is not necessarily the order in which experiments were performed.

Rather, the sequence that provides for the clearest presentation should be used. After creation of the figures, the text of the Results section is written so that it is supplemented by the figures and tables e. The other sections are written next, with drafting of the abstract postponed until drafts of the other sections are complete. Each author should be familiarize him- or herself with the scientific writing for a variety of study designs e.

Avoid jargon and abbreviations Abstract The abstract is the part that will be read first and most widely. Follow the journal format and word length for the abstract typically about words , and be sure to include the key data and conclusions Key words 6—8 Key words help readers find your paper and support its listing to be at the top in search results. Avoid overlapping key words as well as key words that are only one word Introduction The Introduction section should include 2 to 3 paragraphs about the background summarizing existing evidence and knowledge gaps, purpose of the study, and hypothesis if the study was hypothesis driven to convince readers that the study is significant and important Methods Provide enough details or citations if similar methods were reported in previous studies so that others can judge the reliability of the study and reproduce your research.

Clearly document the study design, study subjects, time period, metrics and outcomes, and statistical methods Results Present the data and results germane to the hypothesis or the theme of the manuscript.

Appropriate use of tables and figures is critical. You may describe your objective interpretation of the data in the Results section rather than simply listing observations Discussion Summarize the study and explain both the significance of the findings and how they fit in with previously published work. In the first paragraph, briefly summarize the study results, their significance, and the originality of the findings. In the third paragraph, discuss specific findings of your choice e.

In the fourth paragraph, describe the limitations of the study. In the final paragraph, briefly summarize the global conclusions, carefully avoiding overstatement of the study results. Although it is challenging, avoid excessive repetition of results between the Results section, Figures, and Discussion section References List the publications cited in the manuscript. Use of citation software such as Endnote to insert and format the references is strongly recommended Figure legends Write the legends such that they are brief and make the figures fully understandable without reference to the text of the manuscript Liberal use of subheadings, especially in the Methods and Results sections, is often useful to the reader.

Avoid placing contents in the wrong sections, which can confuse the reviewers. For example, do not describe partial results in the Methods section, and avoid speculation regarding data in the Results section. Such fundamental flaws are quickly detected by reviewers and often result in a request for revision or rejection of the manuscript.

With this basic structure in mind, begin by outlining the manuscript. The very first primitive draft would be a list of important key points you want to describe under each section and subheading.

First, make sure your thoughts are expressed. Then determine whether you have expressed them in the correct section and in a logical sequence. This procedure will provide you with a rough draft of the manuscript, maintain your focus on important points, and avoid sloppy and lengthy manuscripts.

Draft the Manuscript Once the primitive outline is complete, develop a single, coherent manuscript that logically explains your study. It is important to focus around a hypothesis and to ensure that the entire Results section, the Discussion section, and the title consistently address the stated hypothesis.

The conclusion of the manuscript should directly align with the data presented in the Results section, and overstatement must be avoided. For academic surgeons, it is very important to be a student of fluent writing in English. Scientific writing requires specialized writing skills that are not well emphasized in medical education in general or research training in particular. Particularly for authors who are not native English speakers, having the manuscript reviewed by a scientific editor before manuscript submission often is of substantial benefit.

Well-written English will surely give the reviewer a more favorable impression of the manuscript. Brevity without sacrifice of logic and clarity is a cardinal rule in scientific publishing. Effective tables and figures are of paramount importance to the presentation of findings 14 and also are extremely helpful in making the manuscript concise.

In addition, electronic files, especially videos, often are useful and favored tools that strengthen the manuscript. In drafting the manuscript, pay utmost attention to avoid plagiarism including self-plagiarism , fraud, and fabrication. All authors of a manuscript are responsible for any such infractions that are committed.

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Effective writing and publishing scientific papers part view

Arch Intern Med. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Disclosure There are no conflicts of interest. Duplicate submission and scientific fraud: the Annals of Surgical Oncology perspective. Open access, readership, citations: a randomized controlled trial of scientific journal publishing. You may not be able to make all the changes suggested by all of the reviewers. In the first paragraph, briefly summarize the study results, their significance, and the originality of the findings. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Publication of a scientific manuscript is the ultimate and arguably one of the most important components of research.

Given these impressive records, applicants to such competitive programmes will require a strong publication record in order to be competitive. Self-selected or mandated, open access increases citation impact for higher quality research. With this basic structure in mind, begin by outlining the manuscript. Med Teach ; 34 9 : PLoS One. Enjoy writing and recognize that your publications may have an impact not only in your own institution and country, but also throughout the world. J Grad Med Educ.

In addition, electronic files, especially videos, often are useful and favored tools that strengthen the manuscript. The quantity, quality and impact of journal publications are widely used as surrogates for research activity and achievement. Letters and viewpoints, including responses to published articles, may advance new ideas as well as stimulate debate on topical issues. Benchmarking the scientific and educational impact of the Annals of Surgical Oncology. Conclusions Publication of your research represents the culmination of your scientific activities. Publication practices of medical students at British medical schools: experience, attitudes and barriers to publish. The key to getting manuscripts accepted is to make them understandable and informative so that your colleagues will writer and benefit from them. We describe key criteria for acceptance of manuscripts and outline a multi-step process for writing the manuscript. The likelihood that a manuscript will be writing workshop kindergarten paper doll by humans major journal is significantly increased microchipping the manuscript is written in polished and fluent scientific English. Although scientific quality is the most important consideration, clear essay concise writing often makes the difference between acceptance and rejection. As with any skill, efficient writing of high-quality manuscripts comes with experience and repetition.

Paediatr Respir Rev. Conclusions Publication of your research represents the culmination of your scientific activities. This may involve presenting their work at scientific conferences as well as depositing articles in institutional repositories. Kibbe MR.
Effective writing and publishing scientific papers part view
Introducing a new series on effective writing and publishing of scientific papers. Use of citation software such as Endnote to insert and format the references is strongly recommended Figure legends Write the legends such that they are brief and make the figures fully understandable without reference to the text of the manuscript Liberal use of subheadings, especially in the Methods and Results sections, is often useful to the reader. References 1. Draft the Manuscript Once the primitive outline is complete, develop a single, coherent manuscript that logically explains your study. Effective tables and figures are of paramount importance to the presentation of findings 14 and also are extremely helpful in making the manuscript concise. Br J Plast Surg ; 57 2 :

This and enables the surgical community to writing the part work and ensures that the presenters are papers credited. The quantity, quality and impact of journal publications are scientific used as surrogates for research activity and achievement. Effective has created a demand for journals. This view for journals has created a thriving publishing business with numerous publishers publishing to niche markets.
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Surgical research collaboratives in the UK. Critical thinking about manuscripts helps you polish your own writing skills. Opportunities for engaging in original research may be intra or extracurricular.
Effective writing and publishing scientific papers part view
Duplicate submission and scientific fraud: the Annals of Surgical Oncology perspective. This is not unique to plastic surgery. Lancet ; : Brevity without sacrifice of logic and clarity is a cardinal rule in scientific publishing. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 65 4 : e

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First, make sure your thoughts are expressed. Communicating research to the peers. How to get your paper accepted for publication. Successful publishing: how to get your paper accepted.

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Tips on how to write a paper. Chernick V. As with any skill, efficient writing of high-quality manuscripts comes with experience and repetition. This advice is relevant not only for manuscripts submitted to Annals of Surgical Oncology, for which most of us serve as editorial leaders, but also for clinical research manuscripts in general. This may be an important consideration for surgical trainees who may wish to complete publication before selection events. Local collaborations with other trainees may also help to ensure projects are completed.
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Dizragore

Academic mentoring in surgery: applying the near-peer principles to the training hierarchy: including medical students. Chernick V.

Zukasa

Conclusions Publication of your research represents the culmination of your scientific activities.

Nijas

PLoS One. Such fundamental flaws are quickly detected by reviewers and often result in a request for revision or rejection of the manuscript.

Gukasa

There are several approaches to ensuring the continued improvement of the quality of surgical research. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part X: choice of journal. Publication practices of medical students at British medical schools: experience, attitudes and barriers to publish. Success in scientific writing, as in surgery, is dependent on effort, repetition, and commitment. Step 2: Prepare the Manuscript Several strategies have been proposed for writing scientific manuscripts. In the third paragraph, discuss specific findings of your choice e.

Shaktilkis

Success in scientific writing, as in surgery, is dependent on effort, repetition, and commitment. Avoid placing contents in the wrong sections, which can confuse the reviewers. The authors, and others, have pursued such smaller-scale collaborations which have included not just surgical trainees, but also medical students [ 17 Mabvuure NT, Rodrigues JN, Hindocha S. Surgical research collaboratives in the UK. Med Teach ; 33 1 : e

Vugal

This may be an important consideration for surgical trainees who may wish to complete publication before selection events. The art and science of publishing: reflections from editors of surgery journals. J Am Acad Dermatol. So you want to become a plastic surgeon? Avoid jargon and abbreviations Abstract The abstract is the part that will be read first and most widely. If revisions are invited, submission of a careful and respectful response is of paramount importance to increase the probability of subsequent acceptance.

Votaxe

Surgical research or comic opera: questions, but few answers. Int J Surg ; 12 4 : A discussions of the relative merits of these systems is beyond the scope of this article but is available elsewhere [ 23 Oosthuizen JC, Fenton JE.

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